© Hendrik Meersschaert 2017
WORLD WAR II ORDERS, DECORATIONS AND MEDALS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES
MONGOLIAN PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC
The Gold Star Medal (Hero of the M.P.R.)
When in 1945 the USSR joined in the war against Japan, the Mongolian People's Republic (M.P.R.) added some of its forces to the attack and thus became a WW2 participant.
As the awards title suggest, this Gold Star is bestowed on the Heroes of the MPR.
The title was introduced in the People's Revolution in 1921. Damdiny Suche-Bator was the first recipient (23 September 1922). Different titles were used, the first variant being "The Intrepid Hero of the Mongolian People's State". Afterwards, in 1924, this became "The Unbending Hero of People". Next the title changed to "Tried and Tested in Battle Hero of People". Marshal Choybalsan received this latter title (10 July 1941).
The title "Hero of the MPR" was properly instituted 5 October 1941 by a decree in the Khural (Parliament). All previous titles were rendered obsolete and their recipients adopted the new title.
The Gold Star Medal itself was instituted 17/10/1945, after WW2, and all previous Heroes received it as well as, simultaneously, the Order of Suche Bator order and a special diploma.
Multiple awards are possible and, in such a case the title is changed to "Twice Hero of the MPR" and a Hero's Monument is erected in the recipient's birthplace. Only once has a double award been made : to Field-Marshal Choybalsan (second award on 20 September 1945).
Heroes of the MPR have the same privileges as for recipients of the Order of Suche-Bator (see below) and are furthermore, exempted from paying taxes.
Not only Mongolians could receive this award and 17 Russians were also so honoured. Among them well-known names such as Stalin, Field-Marhals Zhukov, Voroshilov and Konev. Soviet President Brezhnev was also among the recipients.
The Star is made of solid gold and has five 0.25 carat diamonds mounted on it. Dimensions : 55 x 32 mm. Weight : 42.60 g.
As mentioned above, the title "Hero of the MPR" was decided upon in 1941 (5 October) and between that day and the institution of the Gold Star Medal in 1945, a special medal was made for the persons so honoured to display. Only 10 were ever awarded !
The Order of Suche Bator
This highest order of Mongolia was instituted 16/05/1941. It was awarded to thousands of Mongolians and foreigners for military and civil services.
Multiple awards were made, i.e. Field-Marshal Tsedenbal (Zedenbal?), 6 times - Colonel-General Tsog (Zog?), 5 awards ) - Field-Marshal Choybalsan, a number of Mongolian generals and Field-Marshal Zhukov (Russia) received the order three times.
The order brought a number of privileges to its recipients : free visits to museums, public shows, cinema, etc., free education (sometimes abroad) for their children, free hunting and fishing wherever on the Mongolian territory, including national parks and preserves.
Before 1961 the order had no ribbon but instead a special small enameled rectangle was worn on undress uniform. Its colors were yellow (2.5 mm), light blue (3 mm), light blue/white ornament (4 mm), red (9 mm), light blue/white ornament (4 mm), light blue (3 mm), yellow (2.5 mm).
In 1961 this was changed into a ribbon : blue (4 mm), white (4 mm), dark red (8 mm), white (4 mm), blue (4 mm).
The order has two types: type I - screwback, type II - with reverse pin.
Co-author : Mr. Yuri Yashnev
The Order of the Red Banner of Combat
Breast star instituted in 1926. Although not a WW2 instituted award it is included here as it was awarded during the period concerned. Third and fourth types of this order were awarded after the war (1945 and 1970).
This is the first order created by the MPR. It's original name was "The Order for Military Valor". After 1940 it became "The Red Banner for Military Valor" and adopted its current name on 17 October 1945. The order is in gilded silver.
It is bestowed for military services and strengthening the Armed Forces.
Multiple awards to the same recipient are shown by a blue plaque with a white number "2", "3" or "4" in the lower part of the badge. Such awards include : Field-Marshals Damid and Choybalsan, Colonel-General Lhagwasuren - 4 times,
Major-Generas Erendoo, Damdinkhu and Danzan, Colonels Nyantaysuren and Tsedendash - 3 times.
Among the Russian recipients are Field-Marshal Voroshilov and Field-Marshal Budyonny.
The order could also be awarded to military units and many were so honoured.
The Order of the Polar Star
Instituted in 1936, it is the most common order for civil and military services. This order is sometimes referred to as the Order of the Pole Star as well.
There are four known types in existence and the first two were awarded from 1936 to 1939 and 1939/40 till 1941 respectively.
The 2nd and 3rd types are exactly the same except that the Uigurian alphabet is used in the Mongolian coat of the arms in the 2nd type whereas the 3rd type has Cyrillic lettering.
Numbers awarded are, approximately 300 for the 1st type, some 2,000 for the 2nd type and about 12,000 and 16,000 respectively for models 3 and 4.
The Medal for Combatant Merit
This medal was instituted on 16 May 1941 and several thousands were awarded. Sometime in the 1950's the material used changed from silver to white metal. The reverse is blank but for an engraved serial number.
The Order for Combatant Merit
Instituted on 17 October 1945 in one class. This decoration was awarded for outstanding merit in action and could be bestowed on military units as well as on individuals.
The "We Have Conquered" Medal
Also instituted in 1945, this medal was awarded to both military and civilian participants who assisted in the fighting against "Japanese imperialistic agression". Some 10,000 are supposed to be awarded to Mongolian soldiers and civilians and also USSR personnel is believed to have received this medal.
The reverse is blank but for an engraved serial number.
The Medal for the 30th Anniversary of the Defeat of Militant Japan
Instituted in 1975 with a self-explanatory title.
The Honour Medal of Labour
The first type of this medal, using the Uigur alphabet, was instituted on 26 May 1941 as an award for distinguished labour. The second type was created at the end of the same year, using the Cyrillic alphabet.
As Mongolia was the biggest "foreign" supplier of meat, sheepskin winter coats and cavalry horses for the Soviet Red Army, the medal can be considered as being the common award for the homefront labour force in WW2.