© Hendrik Meersschaert 2017
WORLD WAR II ORDERS, DECORATIONS AND MEDALS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES
The Gold Cross of Gallantry
Awarded for gallantry in action, this award dates back to the days of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and the Government in Exile during the Japanese occupation.
The Military Merit Medal
This award was also instituted during the period of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and awarded for a number of criteria : for heroic or meritorious service not in combat but still involving operations against the enemies of the Philippines, for meritorious acts in direct support of military operations, for wounds received in action or as a direct result of an enemy act whilst performing a meritorious act, for meritorious service which resulted in death whilst performing the act.
The Philippines Defence Medal
Instituted in 1944, this medal was awarded for service in the defence of the Philippines between 8 December 1941 and 15 June 1942.
The Philippines Liberation Medal
Also instituted in 1944, this medal was awarded for participation in the Philippines' liberation between 17 October 1944 and 3 September 1945.
The Philippine Independence Medal
The Philippine Commonwealth Government's Army Headquarters authorized this medal in 1946 for award to recipients of either the Defence or Liberation Medal.
The Philippine Presidential Unit Citation
For outstanding units cited for gallantry in action during the war, this award was created in 1946.
The Resistance Medal
This medal was established on 26 September 1945 and awarded to Philippine civilians or civilians of other nations who, not belonging to the Philippine armed forces or a recognized guerilla unit, actively participated for a period of at least three months in the resistance movement against the Japanese occupation during the Second World War.
The Wounded Personnel Medal
Established by Philippine Army Circular No. 93 of 6 October 1947, this medal - as its name indicates - was awarded to members of the Philippine Armed Forces or civilians serving with these, for having been wounded in action against an enemy or as direct result of an enemy act, provided the wound needed the intervention of a medical officer. The medal can be awarded posthumously.